Efficacy of Amphotericin B on COVID-19: A Case Report Study
Keywords:COVID-19, Amphotericin B (AmB), Antiviral Drug, Severe dyspnea, Intensive care units, Neonatal
The role of amphotericin B (AmB) as an antiviral drug against some enveloped viruses has been studied in previous researches. Coronavirus is an envelope, non-segmented and positive-sense RNA virus which may be targeted by AmB. Our case was a 34-day-old female child with a 4-days history of low consciousness and dry cough, which gradually became productive. The infant was cyanotic at the admission time that transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). After discharge, we were informed that result of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test was positive which has been first reported as a false negative result. So the results drove our attention to that amphotericin B may cause a dramatic response to the coronavirus. Because of the crucial role of the immune system in viral clearance, the AmB as an immune response and pro-inflammatory stimulator may pave the way for preventing invasion in viral infections such as COVID-19.
Liu K-C, Xu P, Lv W-F, Qiu X-H, Yao J-L, Jin-Feng G. CT manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019: a retrospective analysis of 73 cases by disease severity. Eur J Radiol. 2020;126:108941. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108941.
Liu R, Han H, Liu F, Zhihua Lv, Kailang Wu, Yingle Liu et al. Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2020; 505:172-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.009.
Li G, Fan Y, Lai Y, Tiantian Han, Zonghui Li, Peiwen Zhou et al. Coronavirus infections and immune responses. J Medl Virol. 2020;92(4):424-32. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25685
Arastehfar A, Carvalho A, van de Veerdonk FL, Jeffrey D Jenks, Philipp Koehler, Robert Krause et al. COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA)—from immunology to treatment. J Fungi. 2020;6(2):91. doi: 10.3390/jof6020091.
Li E, Knight JM, Wu Y, Amber Luong, Antony Rodriguez, Farrah Kheradmand, et al. Airway mycosis in allergic airway disease. Adv Immunol. 2019;142:85-140. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2019.05.002.
Schauwvlieghe AF, Rijnders BJ, Philips N, Verwijs R, Vanderbeke L , Van Tienen C, et al. Invasive aspergillosis in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe influenza: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. 2018;6(10):782-92. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30274-1
Wauters J, Baar I, Meersseman P, Meersseman W, Dams K, De Paep R, et al. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a frequent complication of critically ill H1N1 patients: a retrospective study. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38(11):1761-68. doi: 10.1007/s00134-012-2673-2.
Patterson TF, Thompson III GR, Denning DW, Fishman JA, Hadley S, Herbrecht R, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):e1-e60. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw326.
AL-Khikani F, Al-Janabi A. Topical amphotericin B formulas: Promising new application. IntJ Med Sci Curr Res. 2019;2:187-96.
Lanternier F, Lortholary O. Liposomal amphotericin B: what is its role in 2008? Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14 Suppl 4:71-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.01984.x.
Sangalli-Leite F, Scorzoni L, Mesa-Arango AC, Casas C, Herrero E, Mendes Gianinni MJS, et al. Amphotericin B mediates killing in Cryptococcus neoformans through the induction of a strong oxidative burst. Microbes Infec. 2011; 13(5):457-67. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2011.01.015.
Konopka K, Guo LS, Düzgüneş N. Anti-HIV activity of amphotericin B-cholesteryl sulfate colloidal dispersion in vitro. Antiviral Res. 1999; 42(3):197-209. doi: 10.1016/s0166-3542(99)00028-5
Shiota H, Jones B, Schaffner C. Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Effect of Amphotericin B Methyl Ester in Vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1978; 13(2): 199–204. doi: 10.1128/AAC.13.2.199.
Kim H, Kim S-J, Park S-N, Oh J-W. Antiviral effect of amphotericin B on Japanese encephalitis virus replication. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;14(1):121-127. https://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO200411923002271.
Al-Khikani FHO. Amphotericin B as antiviral drug: Possible efficacy against COVID-19. Ann Thorac Med. 2020;15(3):118 -24. doi: 10.4103/atm.ATM_147_20
Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Med. 2020;26(4):450-52. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9.
Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 2015;1282:1-23. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1.
Zumla A, Azhar EI, Arabi Y, Alotaibi B, Rao M, McCloskey B, et al. Host-directed therapies for improving poor treatment outcomes associated with the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections. Int J Infect Dis. 2015; 40:71-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.09.005
Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020;30(3):269-71. doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0.
Vahedi E, Ghanei M, Ghazvini A, Azadi H, Izadi M, Panahi Y, et al. The clinical value of two combination regimens in the Management of Patients Suffering from Covid-19 pneumonia: a single centered, retrospective, observational study. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2020:1-10. doi: 10.1007/s40199-020-00353-w
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.