Effect of Some Metals Ions on Hemolysin Production from Clinical Isolates of Escherichia Coli

Effect of Metals Ions on Hemolysin on Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli


  • Eman Khadum Juda Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Khawlah Jebur Khalaf Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq




Escherichia coli, Hemolysin, Metals Ions


Objective:This study aimed to determine effect of some ions metals (Ca+2, Mn+2, Mg+2, Fe+2, K+, Na+, Zn+2) on hemolysin production was performed.

Methods: Eighty Three (83) E. coliisolates collected from different clinical sources from Baghdad Hospitals, performed by using cultural traits, morphological features and biochemical tests, confirmation of identification was done by Vitek 2 system.And it was detected on ability these isolates to production hemolysin by two methods liquid media and agar media.

Results: The results showed that: In agar medium revealed that 6 (7.23 %) isolates of E. coli had the ability for producing this enzyme and 77 (92.77%) did not produce hemolysin. The same results were found in liquid medium. Used the microtitration plate method to study the effect these ions metals on hemolysin production.According to the effect of ions metals, the results also showed that MIC value of ions metals was 500μg/mL, hemolysin production was increased after addition each of(Ca+2,Mn+2, Mg+2,Fe+2,K+,Na+)  the percentage of hemolysis (96.0 %, 93.4 %,  93.2 %, 93.3%,94.2%, 93.7%) respectively while hemolysin production decreased after addition of Zn+2 with the percentage of hemolysis 0.3%.

Conclusion: Based on the influence of metal ions, the findings indicated that hemolysin production exhibited an increase following the addition of each of Ca2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, K+, and Na+ when compared to the control group. Conversely, the introduction of Zn2+ led to a decrease in hemolysin production.


Shulman ST, Friedmann HC, Sims RH. Theodor Escherich: the first pediatric infectious diseases physician? Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45(8): 1025-9. (PMID: 17879920).

Poirel L, Madec JY, Lupo A, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Spectr. 2018; 6(4). (PMID: 30003866).

Murase K, Ooka T, Iguchi A, et al. Haemolysin E- and enterohaemolysin-derived haemolytic activity of O55/O157 strains and other Escherichia coli lineages. Microbiology (Reading). 2012; 158(Pt 3): 746-758. (PMID: 22194351).

Porcheron G, Dozois CM. Interplay between iron homeostasis and virulence: Fur and RyhB as major regulators of bacterial pathogenicity. Vet Microbiol. 2015; 179(1-2): 2-14. (PMID: 25888312).

Strack K, Lauri N, Maté SM, et al. Induction of erythrocyte microvesicles by Escherichia Coli Alpha hemolysin. Biochem J. 2019; 476(22): 3455-3473. (PMID: 31661116).

Tille, P.M. Bailey and Scotts: Diagnostic Microbiology‖. 13th Rdition.St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier publications. 2014; 484-512.

Brown A, Smith H. Benson’s Microbiological Applications Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology.2015 13th ed. McGraw-Hill Education, USA.

Shimuta K, Ohnishi M, Iyoda S, Gotoh N, Koizumi N, Watanabe H. The hemolytic and cytolytic activities of Serratia marcescens phospholipase A (PhlA) depend on lysophospholipid production by PhlA. BMC Microbiol. 2009; 9: 261. (PMID: 20003541).

Di Venanzio G, Stepanenko TM, García Véscovi E. Serratia marcescens ShlA pore-forming toxin is responsible for early induction of autophagy in host cells and is transcriptionally regulated by RcsB. Infect Immun. 2014; 82(9): 3542-54. (PMID: 24914224).

Hertle R, Hilger M, Weingardt-Kocher S, Walev I. Cytotoxic action of Serratia marcescens hemolysin on human epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1999; 67(2): 817-25. (PMID: 9916096).

Elshikh M, Ahmed S, Funston S, et al. Resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of biosurfactants. Biotechnol Lett. 2016; 38(6): 1015-9. (PMID: 26969604).

Basavaraju M, Gunashree BS. Escherichia coli: An Overview of Main Characteristics. Escherichia coli. 2022, IntechOpen Book. USA.

Vaish R, Pradeep M, Setty CR, Kandi V. Evaluation of Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Escherichia Coli Isolated from Extraintestinal Infections. Cureus. 2016; 8(5): e604. (PMID: 27330872).

Ghaddar N, Anastasiadis E, Halimeh R, et al. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced by Escherichia coli Colonizing Pregnant Women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 2020: 4190306. (PMID: 32327921).

Zhang E, Zhao X, Hu J, Wang R, Fu S, Qin G. Antibacterial metals and alloys for potential biomedical implants. Bioact Mater. 2021; 6(8): 2569-2612. (PMID: 33615045).

Heidenau F, Mittelmeier W, Detsch R, et al. A novel antibacterial titania coating: metal ion toxicity and in vitro surface colonization. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005; 16(10): 883-8. (PMID: 16167096).

Wang D, Lin Z, Wang T, et al. Where does the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles come from: The nanoparticles, the ions, or a combination of both? J Hazard Mater. 2016; 308: 328-34. (PMID: 26852208).

Bücker R, Zakrzewski SS, Wiegand S,et al. Zinc prevents intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by alpha-hemolysin-producing Escherichia coli 536 infection in porcine colon. Vet Microbiol. 2020; 243: 108632. (PMID: 32273011).

Velasco E, Wang S, Sanet M, et al. A new role for Zinc limitation in bacterial pathogenicity: modulation of α-hemolysin from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1): 6535. (PMID: 29695842).

Caetano BL, Domingos MO, da Silva MA, et al. In Silico Prediction and Design of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Alpha-Hemolysin Generate a Soluble and Hemolytic Recombinant Toxin. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(1): 172. (PMID: 35056621).

Pang H, Xin X, He J, et al. Effect of NaCl concentration on microbiological properties in NaCl assistant anaerobic fermentation: hydrolase activity and microbial community distribution. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2020; 11: 589222. file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Effect_of_NaCl_Concentration_on_Microbiological_Pr.pdf

Zhen Z, Liu X, Huang T, Xi T, Zheng Y. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity mechanisms of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015; 46: 202-6. (PMID: 25491978).

Johnsen N, Hamilton ADM, Greve AS, et al. α-Haemolysin production, as a single factor, causes fulminant sepsis in a model of Escherichia coli-induced bacteraemia. Cell Microbiol. 2019; 21(6): e13017. (PMID: 30761726).

Sedat ÇAM. The effect of iron on the expression of hemolysin/cytolysin and growth of clinical and environmental strains of Vibrio vulnificus. Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi. 2020; 31(2), 121-126. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/1266484

Cassat JE, Skaar EP. Iron in infection and immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2013; 13(5): 509-519. (PMID: 23684303).

Martin JE, Waters LS, Storz G, Imlay JA. The Escherichia coli small protein MntS and exporter MntP optimize the intracellular concentration of manganese. PLoS Genet. 2015; 11(3): e1004977. (PMID: 25774656).

Do EA, Gries CM. Beyond Homeostasis: Potassium and Pathogenesis during Bacterial Infections. Infect Immun. 2021; 89(7): e0076620. (PMID: 33875474). .

Abdulkarim, S. M., Fatimah, A. B., and Anderson, J. G. Effect of salt concentrations on the growth of heat-stressed and unstressed Escherichia coli. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 2009; 7(3-4): 51-54. https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/18874/1/9.pdf




How to Cite

Juda, E. K. ., & Khalaf , K. J. . (2024). Effect of Some Metals Ions on Hemolysin Production from Clinical Isolates of Escherichia Coli: Effect of Metals Ions on Hemolysin on Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v10i1.1450