A Review: Hospital Acquired Infection in Some Gram Negative Pathogenic Bacterial Strains


  • Hamad S. Alkhowaiter Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SAUDI Arabia
  • Abdullah AL-Jaddawi Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SAUDI Arabia
  • Mohamed Abu-Zeid Princess Doctor Najla Bint Saud Al Saud Distinguished Research Centre in Biotechnology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Salah E. M. Abo-Aba Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SAUDI Arabia; Princess Doctor Najla Bint Saud Al Saud Distinguished Research Centre in Biotechnology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia




Hospital Acquired infection, bacteria, pathogens, antibiotics, CDC.


Objective: This review aims to update healthcare workers on the current scientific understanding of hospital-acquired infections, with
a focus on describing the pathophysiology and patterns of antimicrobial resistance, particularly concerning Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Methods: Data on hospital-acquired infections were collected globally, with a specific emphasis on the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, Europe, and the Western Pacific regions. Infection rates, predominant pathogens, and antimicrobial resistance patterns were analyzed to provide insights into the current landscape of nosocomial infections.

Results: Hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean and South-East Asia regions reported the highest rates of nosocomial infections (11.8%
and 10.0%, respectively), while rates in Europe and the Western Pacific were 7.7% and 9.0%, respectively. Infections typically arise from
invasive medical equipment and surgical operations, with lower respiratory tract and bloodstream infections being particularly hazardous. Gram-negative bacterial infections, notably, exhibit worrisome antibiotic resistance patterns, potentially developing multiple mechanisms against various antibiotics.

Conclusion: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance presents a significant threat to patient safety, compounded by challenges in
discovering new antibiotics. Factors such as high costs and lengthy drug development processes contribute to this concern. Healthcare
workers must remain abreast of evolving antimicrobial resistance patterns, especially concerning pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to implement effective infection control measures and preserve the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents.


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How to Cite

Alkhowaiter , H. S. ., AL-Jaddawi, A. ., Abu-Zeid, M. ., & Abo-Aba, S. E. M. . (2024). A Review: Hospital Acquired Infection in Some Gram Negative Pathogenic Bacterial Strains . Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v10i1.1475

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