Efficacy and safety of micro/nanostructured polymeric coatings for drug eluting stents


  • Mostafa Rahvar Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Gholamreza Ahmadi Lakalayeh Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Reza Faridi majidi Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ismaeil Haririan Medical Biomaterial Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Bahereh T. Marouf Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
  • Hossein Ghanbari Research Center for Advanced Technologies in Cardiovascular Medicine, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


drug eluting stents, surface micro/nanotopography, drug release kinetics, electrospraying


Objectives: Efficacy of a polymeric coating for drug eluting stents depends on its safety and structural properties. Today, it is well known that factors such surface texture, morphology and drug release kinetics are among the most critical factors that determines the ultimate destiny and success of drug eluting stents. Therefore, the ability to design and control these critical properties guarantee the success of DES in the body.

Methods: In this study, two different micro/nanostructured coatings was prepared using poly lactic acid and dexamethasone by electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) and spinning as coating methods. To analyze structural properties of coatings different technique was used including:   X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Platelet, neutrophil and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion was studied to evaluate safety of coatings. Then, antibacterial properties of coatings were considered. Finally, Drug release profile was evaluated for 15 days.

Results: The results showed that suitable surface properties of micro/nanostructured coatings led to very low platelet, neutrophil, PBMN on the surfaces. Micro/nanostructured coatings showed two drug release kinetics that are applicable for different drug delivery systems.

Conclusion: Based on the results, EHDA method have great potential as a coating method for drug eluting stents.


1. Hutmacher, D., M.B. Hürzeler, and H. Schliephake, A review of material properties of biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers and devices for GTR and GBR applications. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 1996. 11(5).
2. Aksakal, B. and C. Hanyaloglu, Bioceramic dip-coating on Ti–6Al–4V and 316L SS implant materials. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2008. 19(5): p. 2097-2104.
3. De Groot, K., et al., Plasma sprayed coatings of hydroxylapatite. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 1987. 21(12): p. 1375-1381.
4. Johnson, C.D., et al., Electrospun fiber surface nanotopography influences astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth. Biomedical Materials, 2018. 13(5): p. 054101.
5. Guo, Q., et al., Fabrication of polymeric coatings with controlled microtopographies using an electrospraying technique. PloS one, 2015. 10(6): p. e0129960.
6. Bock, N., T.R. Dargaville, and M.A. Woodruff, Electrospraying of polymers with therapeutic molecules: state of the art. Progress in polymer science, 2012. 37(11): p. 1510-1551.
7. Zhang, L., et al., Coaxial electrospray of microparticles and nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Expert review of medical devices, 2012. 9(6): p. 595-612.
8. Zhang, X., L. Wang, and E. Levänen, Superhydrophobic surfaces for the reduction of bacterial adhesion. Rsc Advances, 2013. 3(30): p. 12003-12020.
9. Anselme, K., et al., The interaction of cells and bacteria with surfaces structured at the nanometre scale. Acta biomaterialia, 2010. 6(10): p. 3824-3846.
10. Xu, L.-C. and C.A. Siedlecki, Submicron-textured biomaterial surface reduces staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Acta biomaterialia, 2012. 8(1): p. 72-81.
11. Zilberman, M., et al., Structured drug-loaded bioresorbable films for support structures. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, 2001. 12(8): p. 875-892.
12. Ma, M., R.M. Hill, and G.C. Rutledge, A review of recent results on superhydrophobic materials based on micro-and nanofibers. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 2008. 22(15): p. 1799-1817.
13. Jiang, L., Y. Zhao, and J. Zhai, A lotus‐leaf‐like superhydrophobic surface: a porous microsphere/nanofiber composite film prepared by electrohydrodynamics. Angewandte Chemie, 2004. 116(33): p. 4438-4441.
14. Zhang, J. and Y. Han, A topography/chemical composition gradient polystyrene surface: toward the investigation of the relationship between surface wettability and surface structure and chemical composition. Langmuir, 2008. 24(3): p. 796-801.
15. Huang, Q., et al., Role of trapped air in the formation of cell-and-protein micropatterns on superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic microtemplated surfaces. Biomaterials, 2012. 33(33): p. 8213-8220.
16. Roach, P., D. Farrar, and C.C. Perry, Surface tailoring for controlled protein adsorption: effect of topography at the nanometer scale and chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006. 128(12): p. 3939-3945.
17. Moradi, S., et al., Effect of extreme wettability on platelet adhesion on metallic implants: From superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 2016. 8(27): p. 17631-17641.
18. Lima, A.C. and J.F. Mano, Micro-/nano-structured superhydrophobic surfaces in the biomedical field: part I: basic concepts and biomimetic approaches. Nanomedicine, 2015. 10(1): p. 103-119.
19. Milner, K.R., A.J. Snyder, and C.A. Siedlecki, Sub‐micron texturing for reducing platelet adhesion to polyurethane biomaterials. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2006. 76(3): p. 561-570.
20. Venkatraman, S. and F. Boey, Release profiles in drug-eluting stents: issues and uncertainties. Journal of Controlled Release, 2007. 120(3): p. 149-160.
21. Bozsak, F., et al., Optimization of drug delivery by drug-eluting stents. PLoS One, 2015. 10(6): p. e0130182.
22. Stefanini, G.G. and D.R. Holmes Jr, Drug-eluting coronary-artery stents. New England Journal of Medicine, 2013. 368(3): p. 254-265.
23. Langer, R. and N.A. Peppas, Present and future applications of biomaterials in controlled drug delivery systems. Biomaterials, 1981. 2(4): p. 201-214.
24. Wang, X., et al., Controlled release of sirolimus from a multilayered PLGA stent matrix. Biomaterials, 2006. 27(32): p. 5588-5595.
25. Fredenberg, S., et al., The mechanisms of drug release in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based drug delivery systems—a review. International journal of pharmaceutics, 2011. 415(1-2): p. 34-52.
26. Kamaly, N., et al., Degradable controlled-release polymers and polymeric nanoparticles: mechanisms of controlling drug release. Chemical reviews, 2016. 116(4): p. 2602-2663.
27. Liechty, W.B., et al., Polymers for drug delivery systems. Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering, 2010. 1: p. 149-173.
28. Odian, G., Principles of polymerization. 2004: John Wiley & Sons.
29. Karavelidis, V., et al., Evaluating the effects of crystallinity in new biocompatible polyester nanocarriers on drug release behavior. International journal of nanomedicine, 2011. 6: p. 3021.
30. Sill, T.J. and H.A. von Recum, Electrospinning: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2008. 29(13): p. 1989-2006.
31. Kenawy, E.-R., et al., Processing of polymer nanofibers through electrospinning as drug delivery systems. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2009. 113(1): p. 296-302.




How to Cite

Rahvar, M., Ahmadi Lakalayeh, G., Faridi majidi, R., Haririan, I., Marouf, B. T., & Ghanbari, H. (2018). Efficacy and safety of micro/nanostructured polymeric coatings for drug eluting stents. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 4(3). Retrieved from https://jocms.org/index.php/jcms/article/view/456