Outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction in Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Ameen M Mohammad Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Iraq.
  • Schivan U Mohammed Department of Biomedicine, College of Medicine, University of Zakho, Duhok, Iraq.
  • Saad Y Saeed Department of Community Medicine, College of medicine, University of Duhok, Iraq.




STEMI, Primary PCI, Iraq


Objective: This registry aims to clarify the characteristics and 6-weeks outcomes of patients with STEMI after PPCI in the region.

Methods: Data from a total of 151 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI at Duhok heart center, Iraq from 2020 to 2021 was collected. Patient’s demographic, clinical and PPCI profiles were recorded. The major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF%) outcomes for 6 weeks period was registered. 

Results:  Of the 151 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI, 46 (30.4%) were <50 years old. Majority of patients were males and have clusters of cardiometabolic risk factors. 64% of cases attained Cath lab within first hour of initial chest pain.  Almost 90% of STEMI cases were treated with stenting with TIMI3 in (94%). 80% of PPCI cases discharged home within 24 hours uneventfully. 6-weeks LVEF was preserved within normal range in 55% of cases. 36% had MACEs including impaired LVEF. All cause-mortality happened in 5%. 4% were Censored from follow up. The predictors of 6-weeks outcomes were depend on type/location of myocardial infarction, the culprit artery, TIMI flow post PCI and length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: This registry has shown feasibility in doing PPCI with reasonable outcomes in the Region. Networking of capable centers of PPCI in the country is essential for augmenting the cardiac services and sharing the knowledge among cardiologists and people for better STEMI outcomes.  


Mohammad, A.M., Jehangeer, H.I. & Shaikhow, S.K. Prevalence and risk factors of premature coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography in Kurdistan, Iraq. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 15, 155 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-015-0145-7

Steg G, James S, Atar D, Badano L, Bldmstrom-Lundqvist C, Di Mario C, et al. Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force on the Management of ST-Segment Ele-vation Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2012; 33: 2569-2619.

Mohammad AM, Rashad HH, Habeeb QS, Rashad BH, Saeed SY. Demographic, clinical and angiographic profile of coronary artery disease in kurdistan region of Iraq. Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2021;11(1):39-45. Published 2021 Feb 15.

Ginanjar, E., Sjaaf, A. C., Alwi, I., Sulistyadi, W., Suryadarmawan, E., Wibowo, A., & Liastuti, L. D. (2020). CODE STEMI Program Improves Clinical Outcome in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Open access emergency medicine: OAEM, 12, 315–321. https://doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S259155

Mohammad, A.M., Othman, G.O., Saeed, C.H. et al. Genetic polymorphisms in early-onset myocardial infarction in a sample of Iraqi patients: a pilot study. BMC Res Notes 13, 541 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05367-w

Mohammad AM, Sheikho SK, Tayib JM. Relation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Coronary Angiographic Findings in Iraqi Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease. Am J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2013;1(1):25–9.

Wake R, Yoshiyama M. Gender differences in ischemic heart disease. Recent Patents Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 2009;4:234–240. doi: 10.2174/157489009789152249.

Mohammad AM, Al-Allawi NAS. CYP2C19 Genotype is an Independent Predictor of Adverse Cardiovascular Outcome in Iraqi Patients on Clopidogrel After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2018; 71(6):347-351. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000577

Abd RK, Abd SN, Raman V. Tracing the Risk Factors of Heart Diseases at Al-Nasiriyah Heart Center in Iraq. J Cardiovascular Disease Res. 2019;10(1):31-4.

Mohammad AM, Abdulhaleem BH, Habeeb QS. First 24 hours’ outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Iraq. Med J Babylo 2020;17;154-8

Jin J. Testing for “Silent” Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA. 2014;312(8):858. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.9191

Ahmed L. Fathala, Salwa Q. Bukhari, and Abdulaziz Al-Sugair. High prevalence of coronary artery calcification in Saudi patients with normal myocardial perfusion. Ann Saudi Med. 2017 Mar-Apr; 37(2): 154–160

Awsan Noman, Azfar G Zaman, [...], and Rajiv Das. Early discharge after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2013 Sep; 2(3): 262–269. doi: 10.1177/2048872612475231

Francone M, Bucciarelli‐Ducci C, Carbone I, Canali E, Scardala R, Calabrese FA, Sardella G, Mancone M, Catalano C, Fedele F, Passariello R, Bogaert J, Agati L. Impact of primary coronary angioplasty delay on myocardial salvage, infarct size, and microvascular damage in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction: insight from cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54:2145–2153.

Ahn KT, Song YB, Choe YH, Yang JH, Hahn J‐Y, Choi J‐H, Choi S‐H, Chang S‐A, Lee S‐C, Lee SH, Oh JK, Gwon H‐C. Impact of transmural necrosis on left ventricular remodeling and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013; 29:835–842.

Koh JQ, Tong DC, Sriamareswaran R, Yeap A, Yip B, Wu S, Perera P, Menon S, Noaman SA, Layland J. In‐hospital ‘CODE STEMI’ improves door‐to‐balloon time in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Emerg Med Australas. 2018; 30:222–227.




How to Cite

Mohammad, A. M. ., Mohammed, S. U. ., & Saeed, S. Y. . (2022). Outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v8i2.1202