Study of factors that impact the production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with COVID-19
Factors impacting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production
Keywords:Covid-19; factors; SARS-CoV-2; Antibodies; Iraq
Objectives: The aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of different variables on the production of antibodies in patients who were infected with Covid-19.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The study was conducted between January 2021 and March 2022. Demographic data were collected via face-to-face interview. Antibody levels were determined using Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2.
Results: The levels of antibody were studied in 138 patients. A significant association was found between antibody levels and the age of the participants (r=0.175; P=0.04). Besides, a significant correlation was found between antibody levels and the duration of symptoms (r=0.206; P=0.015). The antibody levels were not associated with gender; history of chronic diseases; marital status or time interval before testing.
Conclusions: Different variables that may impact the levels of antibody were studied. Significant associations were found between antibody levels and both age and duration of symptoms. Our results can be used by healthcare providers to focus on patients who are at risk of low antibody production.
Kumar A, Singh R, Kaur J, Pandey S, Sharma V, Thakur L, et al. Wuhan to World: The COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021;11.
Hussein NR. The Role of Self-Responsible Response Versus Lockdown Approach in Controlling COVID-19 Pandemic in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Infection. 2020;7(4).
Martinez-Garcia M, Rabasa A, Barber X, Polotskaya K, Roomp K, Oliver N. Key factors affecting people’s unwillingness to be confined during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain: a large-scale population study. Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):18626.
Wondreys J, Mudde C. Victims of the Pandemic? European Far-Right Parties and COVID-19. Nationalities Papers. 2022;50(1):86-103.
Robert R, Kentish-Barnes N, Boyer A, Laurent A, Azoulay E, Reignier J. Ethical dilemmas due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Annals of Intensive Care. 2020;10(1):84.
Lami F, Rashak HA, Khaleel HA, Mahdi SG, Adnan F, Khader YS, et al. Iraq experience in handling the COVID-19 pandemic: implications of public health challenges and lessons learned for future epidemic preparedness planning. Journal of Public Health. 2021;43(Supplement_3):iii19-iii28.
Hussein N. The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Elimination of Viral Hepatitis in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Hepatitis Monthly. 2020;20(5):e104643.
Hussein NR, Musa DH, Ibrahim N, Naqid IA, Saleem ZSM, Jacksi K. Impact of Covid-19 pandemic on surgical practice in Kurdistan, Iraq: An online cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Surgery Open. 2020;27:47-51.
Vetter P, Vu DL, L’Huillier AG, Schibler M, Kaiser L, Jacquerioz F. Clinical features of covid-19. BMJ. 2020;369:m1470.
Hwaiz RA, Zaki Abdullah SM, Jalal Balaky ST, Ali KS, Merza MY, Khailani SA, et al. Clinical and hematological characteristics of 300 COVID-19 patients in Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 2022;36:03946320221085465.
John TJ, Samuel R. Herd immunity and herd effect: new insights and definitions. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2000;16(7):601-6.
Frederiksen LSF, Zhang Y, Foged C, Thakur A. The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020;11.
Sariol A, Perlman S. Lessons for COVID-19 Immunity from Other Coronavirus Infections. Immunity. 2020;53(2):248-63.
Hussein NR, Musa DH, Saleem ZSM, Naqid IA, Ibrahim N. Possible COVID-19 reinfection case in Duhok City, Kurdistan: A case report. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021;10(5):2035.
Hussein NR, Rashad BH, Almizori LA, Yousif SS, Sadeeq AT, Abdulkareem YR, et al. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Duhok city, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases. 2021;13(1).
Zenone M, Snyder J, Marcon A, Caulfield T. Analyzing natural herd immunity media discourse in the United Kingdom and the United States. PLOS Global Public Health. 2022;2(1):e0000078.
Khalife J, VanGennep D. COVID-19 herd immunity in the absence of a vaccine: an irresponsible approach. Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021012.
Hall V, Foulkes S, Insalata F, Kirwan P, Saei A, Atti A, et al. Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after Covid-19 Vaccination and Previous Infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 2022;386(13):1207-20.
Papachristodoulou E, Kakoullis L, Parperis K, Panos G. Long-term and herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2: implications from current and past knowledge. Pathog Dis. 2020;78(3).
Klein SL, Pekosz A, Park H-S, Ursin RL, Shapiro JR, Benner SE, et al. Sex, age, and hospitalization drive antibody responses in a COVID-19 convalescent plasma donor population. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2020;130(11):6141-50.
Zhang B, Zhou X, Zhu C, Song Y, Feng F, Qiu Y, et al. Immune Phenotyping Based on the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and IgG Level Predicts Disease Severity and Outcome for Patients With COVID-19. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 2020;7(157).
Yang HS, Costa V, Racine-Brzostek SE, Acker KP, Yee J, Chen Z, et al. Association of Age With SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response. JAMA Network Open. 2021;4(3):e214302-e.
Scully EP, Haverfield J, Ursin RL, Tannenbaum C, Klein SL. Considering how biological sex impacts immune responses and COVID-19 outcomes. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2020;20(7):442-7.
Zeng F, Dai C, Cai P, Wang J, Xu L, Li J, et al. A comparison study of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody between male and female COVID-19 patients: A possible reason underlying different outcome between sex. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020;92(10):2050-4.
Markmann AJ, Giallourou N, Bhowmik DR, Hou YJ, Lerner A, Martinez DR, et al. Sex Disparities and Neutralizing-Antibody Durability to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Convalescent Individuals. mSphere. 2021;6(4):e00275-21.
Karuna S, Li SS, Grant S, Walsh SR, Frank I, Casapia M, et al. Neutralizing antibody responses over time in demographically and clinically diverse individuals recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States and Peru: A cohort study. PLOS Medicine. 2021;18(12):e1003868.
Zejda JE, Brożek GM, Kowalska M, Barański K, Kaleta-Pilarska A, Nowakowski A, et al. Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in a Random Sample of Inhabitants of the Katowice Region, Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(6):3188.
Marklund E, Leach S, Axelsson H, Nyström K, Norder H, Bemark M, et al. Serum-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 after mild and severe COVID-19 infection and analysis of IgG non-responders. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(10):e0241104.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.