Evaluation of flatulence of Uterus (Nafkhat-ol-rahem) as One of the Causes of Infertility in Women from the Viewpoint of Ali ibn Abbas Ahvazi and Modern Medicine
Keywords:Nafkhat-ol-rahem, Infertility, Ali ibn Abbas, Iranian Traditional medicine
Objective: Today Infertility and its complications is one of the largest problems because it would impose economic burden and psychological pressure on the people. One of the infertility reasons in most Iranian Traditional medicine (ITM) manuscripts is focused on Nafkhat-ol-rahem.
Methods: In this study, the Ibn Abbas theories in kamel al- Sina'ah about Nafkhat-ol-rahem, causes, reasons and treatment were investigated. To achieve recent studies, searches were performed in the databases with the keywords including vaginal flatus, vaginal flatulence and pelvic floor weakness.
Results: This disease is caused by bad cold temper, hit and obstruction of cervix, etc. Traditional medicine considered the bloating of uterus (Nafkhat-ol-rahem) the cause of some miscarriages and infertility, because dense gas that accumulated in the uterus, preventing implantation and establishment of the embryo. In ITM, treatment involves the use of warm and mohallel riyah (gas dissolvent) herbal medicines in the form of oral, poultice (topical ointment), Forzajeh and Homol (vaginal suppository).
Conclusion: Nafkhat-ol-Rahem is a highly prevalent disease in women, but because of the shame, the patient does not speak with her doctor. Bloating of uterus and vaginal flatulence seen in the pelvic floor muscle relaxation, which can be harmless or associated with major complications such as rectovaginal fistula and infection of the uterus.
2. Arzani M. Akbari Medicine (Tib Akbari). Natural Resuscitation Institute, Jalal-eddin, Qom, 2008. Vol.2, p. 991
3. aghili khorasani M. kholasat al-hekmat. Qum, 2006. Vol. 1, 347-348
4. Nazem Khan Cheshti NJM. Eksire Azam. Iran University of Medical Sciences, Institute of History of Medicine, Islamic Medicine and Supplement, Tehran, 2008. Vol. 3, 681-683
5. Rayner J-A, Willis K, Burgess R. Women's use of complementary and alternative medicine for fertility enhancement: A review of the literature. J. Altern. Complement. Med 2011, 17(8): 685-690
6. Coulson C, Jenkins J. Complementary and alternative medicine utilisation in NHS and private clinic settings: a United Kingdom survey of 400 infertility patients. J Exp Clin Assist Reprod 2005; 2(1):5.
7. Xue CC, Zhang AL, Lin V, Da Costa C, Story DF. Complementary and alternative medicine use in Australia: a national population-based survey. J. Altern. Complement. Med 2007;13(6):643-50.
8. Jorjani eeh. zakhire kharazmshahi. Natural Resuscitation Institute, qum, 2012. Vol. 6, 955
9. Sina AA. Canon of medicine (Al Qanun Fil Tibb). Arab Heritage Revival House, Beirut, 2005. Vol. 3, 494-495
10. Samarghandi Na. Sharh al-asbab va al-alamat. Natural Resuscitation Institute, qum, 2008. Vol.2, 271-272
11. Ahvazi AIA. kamel al sinaa al tebie (The Perfect Book of the Art of Medicine). Natural Resuscitation Institute jalalaldin, qum,2008, vol.1, 325-327
12. Ahvazi AIA. Kamel al-Sinaat al-Tibbiya (The Perfect Book of the Art of Medicine) . Natural Resuscitation Institute jalalaldin, qum,2008, vol.2, 178-179, 497.
13. Sohrabvand FN, Esmaeel ; Tansaz, Mojgan ; Keshavarz, Mansoor ; Hashem Dabaghian, Fattaneh ; Nikbakht nasrabadi, Alireza ; Goshehgir, seyed ashrafaldin. An overview of the causes of infertility in women from the perspective of traditional medicine, JIITM 2011;2(2):107-116.
14. Elgod SL. Medicine During the the Safavie. Tehran: Tehran univercity. 1978, 291-293
15. Beius S. Infertility and contraception in Iran medicine: esmaeelian; 2010, 66-70
16. Allahdin S. Flatus vaginalis a distressing symptom. Int J Colorectal Dis 2011;26(11):1493.
17. Krissi H, Medina C, Stanton SL. Vaginal windâ€“a new pelvic symptom. Int Urogynecol J 2003;14(6): 399-400
18. KjÃ¸lhede P, WahlstrÃ¶m J, Wingren G. Pelvic floor dysfunction after Burch colposuspension: A comprehensive study. Part I. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand 2005;84(9):894-901.
19. Buurman MBR, Lagroâ€Janssen ALM. Womenâ€™s perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their helpâ€seeking behaviour: a qualitative interview study. Scand J Caring Sci 2013;27(2):406-13.
20. Nakagoe T, Sawai T, Tuji T, Nanashima A, Yamaguchi H, Yasutake T, et al. Successful transvaginal repair of a rectovaginal fistula developing after double-stapled anastomosis in low anterior resection: report of four cases. Surg Today 1999;29(5):443-5.
21. Schloericke E, Hoffmann M, Zimmermann M, Kraus M, Bouchard R, Roblick UJ, et al. Transperineal omentum flap for the anatomic reconstruction of the rectovaginal space in the therapy of rectovaginal fistulas. Colorectal Disease. 2012;14(5):604-10.
22. Sina AA., Translator: Qazvini, Abd al-Kareem, Translation and Description of avicenna's Healthcare Management, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 2008, Pages: 22-23
23. Afsharypour S. Iranian Traditional Pharmacy and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chogan Publication, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2013. pp. 314,316,318,335
24. MH AKS. Makhzan ol Advieh (The Storehouse Medicaments). Tehran: Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2008.
25. Cammu H, Van Nylen M, Amy J. A 10â€year followâ€up after Kegel pelvic floor muscle exercises for genuine stress incontinence. BJU international. 2000;85(6):655-8.
26 . Kegel AH. Progressive resistance exercise in the functional restoration of the perineal muscles. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 1948;56(2):238-48.
27. ELIA G, BERGMAN A. Pelvic muscle exercises: when do they work. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81(2):283-6.